Characterization of route specific impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods

Vanitha Kunalan, Niamh Nic Daeid (Lead / Corresponding author), William J. Kerr, Hilary A. S. Buchanan, Allan R. McPherson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Impurity profiling of seized methamphetamine can provide very useful information in criminal investigations and, specifically, on drug trafficking routes, sources of supply, and relationships between seizures. Particularly important is the identification of "route specific" impurities or those which indicate the synthetic method used for manufacture in illicit laboratories. Previous researchers have suggested impurities which are characteristic of the Leuckart and reductive amination (Al/Hg) methods of preparation. However, to date and importantly, these two synthetic methods have not been compared in a single study utilizing methamphetamine hydrochloride synthesized in-house and, therefore, of known synthetic origin. Using the same starting material, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), 40 batches of methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods (20 batches per method). Both basic and acidic impurities were extracted separately and analyzed by GC/MS. From this controlled study, two route specific impurities for the Leuckart method and one route specific impurity for the reductive amination method are reported. The intra- and inter-batch variation of these route specific impurities was assessed. Also, the variation of the "target impurities" recently recommended for methamphetamine profiling is discussed in relation to their variation within and between production batches synthesized using the Leuckart and reductive amination routes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7342-7348
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume81
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2009

Fingerprint

Amination
Methamphetamine
Impurities

Cite this

Kunalan, Vanitha ; Nic Daeid, Niamh ; Kerr, William J. ; Buchanan, Hilary A. S. ; McPherson, Allan R. / Characterization of route specific impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods. In: Analytical Chemistry. 2009 ; Vol. 81, No. 17. pp. 7342-7348.
@article{8683ef2fdc7541dab82eb93bc6312539,
title = "Characterization of route specific impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods",
abstract = "Impurity profiling of seized methamphetamine can provide very useful information in criminal investigations and, specifically, on drug trafficking routes, sources of supply, and relationships between seizures. Particularly important is the identification of {"}route specific{"} impurities or those which indicate the synthetic method used for manufacture in illicit laboratories. Previous researchers have suggested impurities which are characteristic of the Leuckart and reductive amination (Al/Hg) methods of preparation. However, to date and importantly, these two synthetic methods have not been compared in a single study utilizing methamphetamine hydrochloride synthesized in-house and, therefore, of known synthetic origin. Using the same starting material, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), 40 batches of methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods (20 batches per method). Both basic and acidic impurities were extracted separately and analyzed by GC/MS. From this controlled study, two route specific impurities for the Leuckart method and one route specific impurity for the reductive amination method are reported. The intra- and inter-batch variation of these route specific impurities was assessed. Also, the variation of the {"}target impurities{"} recently recommended for methamphetamine profiling is discussed in relation to their variation within and between production batches synthesized using the Leuckart and reductive amination routes.",
author = "Vanitha Kunalan and {Nic Daeid}, Niamh and Kerr, {William J.} and Buchanan, {Hilary A. S.} and McPherson, {Allan R.}",
year = "2009",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/ac9005588",
language = "English",
volume = "81",
pages = "7342--7348",
journal = "Analytical Chemistry",
issn = "0003-2700",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "17",

}

Characterization of route specific impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods. / Kunalan, Vanitha; Nic Daeid, Niamh (Lead / Corresponding author); Kerr, William J.; Buchanan, Hilary A. S.; McPherson, Allan R.

In: Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 81, No. 17, 01.09.2009, p. 7342-7348.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of route specific impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods

AU - Kunalan, Vanitha

AU - Nic Daeid, Niamh

AU - Kerr, William J.

AU - Buchanan, Hilary A. S.

AU - McPherson, Allan R.

PY - 2009/9/1

Y1 - 2009/9/1

N2 - Impurity profiling of seized methamphetamine can provide very useful information in criminal investigations and, specifically, on drug trafficking routes, sources of supply, and relationships between seizures. Particularly important is the identification of "route specific" impurities or those which indicate the synthetic method used for manufacture in illicit laboratories. Previous researchers have suggested impurities which are characteristic of the Leuckart and reductive amination (Al/Hg) methods of preparation. However, to date and importantly, these two synthetic methods have not been compared in a single study utilizing methamphetamine hydrochloride synthesized in-house and, therefore, of known synthetic origin. Using the same starting material, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), 40 batches of methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods (20 batches per method). Both basic and acidic impurities were extracted separately and analyzed by GC/MS. From this controlled study, two route specific impurities for the Leuckart method and one route specific impurity for the reductive amination method are reported. The intra- and inter-batch variation of these route specific impurities was assessed. Also, the variation of the "target impurities" recently recommended for methamphetamine profiling is discussed in relation to their variation within and between production batches synthesized using the Leuckart and reductive amination routes.

AB - Impurity profiling of seized methamphetamine can provide very useful information in criminal investigations and, specifically, on drug trafficking routes, sources of supply, and relationships between seizures. Particularly important is the identification of "route specific" impurities or those which indicate the synthetic method used for manufacture in illicit laboratories. Previous researchers have suggested impurities which are characteristic of the Leuckart and reductive amination (Al/Hg) methods of preparation. However, to date and importantly, these two synthetic methods have not been compared in a single study utilizing methamphetamine hydrochloride synthesized in-house and, therefore, of known synthetic origin. Using the same starting material, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), 40 batches of methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods (20 batches per method). Both basic and acidic impurities were extracted separately and analyzed by GC/MS. From this controlled study, two route specific impurities for the Leuckart method and one route specific impurity for the reductive amination method are reported. The intra- and inter-batch variation of these route specific impurities was assessed. Also, the variation of the "target impurities" recently recommended for methamphetamine profiling is discussed in relation to their variation within and between production batches synthesized using the Leuckart and reductive amination routes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=69749110822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/ac9005588

DO - 10.1021/ac9005588

M3 - Article

C2 - 19637924

AN - SCOPUS:69749110822

VL - 81

SP - 7342

EP - 7348

JO - Analytical Chemistry

JF - Analytical Chemistry

SN - 0003-2700

IS - 17

ER -