Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence

Riccardo E. Marioni (Lead / Corresponding author), Gail Davies, Caroline Hayward, Dave Liewald, Shona M. Kerr, Archie Campbell, Michelle Luciano, Blair H. Smith, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Lynne J. Hocking, Nicholas D. Hastie, Alan F. Wright, David J. Porteous, Peter M. Visscher, Ian J. Deary (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    Abstract

    Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs. ~. 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation. ~. 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)26-32
    Number of pages7
    JournalIntelligence
    Volume44
    Issue numberMay-June
    Early online date14 Mar 2014
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

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    Intelligence
    Social Class
    Molecular Biology
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
    Education
    Genome
    Aptitude
    Social Environment
    Scotland
    Socioeconomic Status
    Molecular Genetics
    Mortality
    DNA
    Health
    Polymorphism

    Cite this

    Marioni, R. E., Davies, G., Hayward, C., Liewald, D., Kerr, S. M., Campbell, A., ... Deary, I. J. (2014). Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence. Intelligence, 44(May-June), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.02.006
    Marioni, Riccardo E. ; Davies, Gail ; Hayward, Caroline ; Liewald, Dave ; Kerr, Shona M. ; Campbell, Archie ; Luciano, Michelle ; Smith, Blair H. ; Padmanabhan, Sandosh ; Hocking, Lynne J. ; Hastie, Nicholas D. ; Wright, Alan F. ; Porteous, David J. ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Deary, Ian J. / Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence. In: Intelligence. 2014 ; Vol. 44, No. May-June. pp. 26-32.
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    abstract = "Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21{\%} of the variation in education, 18{\%} of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29{\%} of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs. ~. 5{\%}). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation. ~. 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.",
    author = "Marioni, {Riccardo E.} and Gail Davies and Caroline Hayward and Dave Liewald and Kerr, {Shona M.} and Archie Campbell and Michelle Luciano and Smith, {Blair H.} and Sandosh Padmanabhan and Hocking, {Lynne J.} and Hastie, {Nicholas D.} and Wright, {Alan F.} and Porteous, {David J.} and Visscher, {Peter M.} and Deary, {Ian J.}",
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    Marioni, RE, Davies, G, Hayward, C, Liewald, D, Kerr, SM, Campbell, A, Luciano, M, Smith, BH, Padmanabhan, S, Hocking, LJ, Hastie, ND, Wright, AF, Porteous, DJ, Visscher, PM & Deary, IJ 2014, 'Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence', Intelligence, vol. 44, no. May-June, pp. 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.02.006

    Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence. / Marioni, Riccardo E. (Lead / Corresponding author); Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M.; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Wright, Alan F.; Porteous, David J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J. (Lead / Corresponding author).

    In: Intelligence, Vol. 44, No. May-June, 2014, p. 26-32.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Marioni RE, Davies G, Hayward C, Liewald D, Kerr SM, Campbell A et al. Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence. Intelligence. 2014;44(May-June):26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.02.006