Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula

William T. Reach (Lead / Corresponding author), Jeonghee Rho, Erick Young, Sergio Fajardo-Acosta, James Muzerolle, Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar, Lee Hartmann, Lori Allen, Sean Carey, Jean-Charles Cuillandre, Thomas H. Jarrett, Patrick Lowrance, Anthony Marston, Alberto Noriega-Crespo, Robert L. Hurt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The optically dark globule IC 1396A is revealed using Spitzer Space Telescope images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, and 24 mum to be infrared-bright and to contain a set of previously unknown protostars. The mid-infrared colors of the 24 mum detected sources indicate several very young (Class I or 0) protostars and a dozen Class II stars. Three of the new sources (IC 1396A:gamma, 1396A:delta, and 1396A:epsilon) emit over 90% of their bolometric luminosities at wavelengths greater than 3 mum, and they are located within similar to0.02 pc of the ionization front at the edge of the globule. Many of the sources have spectra that are still rising at 24 mum. The two previously known young stars LkHalpha 349a and 349c are both detected, with component c harboring a massive disk and component a being bare. On the order of 5% of the mass of material in the globule is presently in the form of protostars in the 10(5)-10(6) yr age range. This high star formation rate was likely triggered by radiation from a nearby O star.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-390
Number of pages6
JournalAstrophysical Journal: Supplement Series
Volume154
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004

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globules
protostars
elephant
nebulae
stars
O stars
ionization
Space Infrared Telescope Facility
star formation rate
wavelength
luminosity
color
radiation
wavelengths
young
rate
material

Keywords

  • ISM : globules ISM : individual (IC 1396A) infrared : ISM MAIN-SEQUENCE EVOLUTION COMETARY GLOBULES MOLECULAR CLOUDS IC 1396 IC-1396 STARS

Cite this

Reach, W. T., Rho, J., Young, E., Fajardo-Acosta, S., Muzerolle, J., Sicilia-Aguilar, A., ... Hurt, R. L. (2004). Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula. Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series, 154(1), 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1086/422193
Reach, William T. ; Rho, Jeonghee ; Young, Erick ; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio ; Muzerolle, James ; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora ; Hartmann, Lee ; Allen, Lori ; Carey, Sean ; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles ; Jarrett, Thomas H. ; Lowrance, Patrick ; Marston, Anthony ; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto ; Hurt, Robert L. / Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula. In: Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series. 2004 ; Vol. 154, No. 1. pp. 385-390.
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Reach, WT, Rho, J, Young, E, Fajardo-Acosta, S, Muzerolle, J, Sicilia-Aguilar, A, Hartmann, L, Allen, L, Carey, S, Cuillandre, J-C, Jarrett, TH, Lowrance, P, Marston, A, Noriega-Crespo, A & Hurt, RL 2004, 'Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula', Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1086/422193

Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula. / Reach, William T. (Lead / Corresponding author); Rho, Jeonghee; Young, Erick; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Muzerolle, James; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Hartmann, Lee; Allen, Lori; Carey, Sean ; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lowrance, Patrick; Marston, Anthony ; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Hurt, Robert L.

In: Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series, Vol. 154, No. 1, 09.2004, p. 385-390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula

AU - Reach, William T.

AU - Rho, Jeonghee

AU - Young, Erick

AU - Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio

AU - Muzerolle, James

AU - Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora

AU - Hartmann, Lee

AU - Allen, Lori

AU - Carey, Sean

AU - Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

AU - Jarrett, Thomas H.

AU - Lowrance, Patrick

AU - Marston, Anthony

AU - Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

AU - Hurt, Robert L.

PY - 2004/9

Y1 - 2004/9

N2 - The optically dark globule IC 1396A is revealed using Spitzer Space Telescope images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, and 24 mum to be infrared-bright and to contain a set of previously unknown protostars. The mid-infrared colors of the 24 mum detected sources indicate several very young (Class I or 0) protostars and a dozen Class II stars. Three of the new sources (IC 1396A:gamma, 1396A:delta, and 1396A:epsilon) emit over 90% of their bolometric luminosities at wavelengths greater than 3 mum, and they are located within similar to0.02 pc of the ionization front at the edge of the globule. Many of the sources have spectra that are still rising at 24 mum. The two previously known young stars LkHalpha 349a and 349c are both detected, with component c harboring a massive disk and component a being bare. On the order of 5% of the mass of material in the globule is presently in the form of protostars in the 10(5)-10(6) yr age range. This high star formation rate was likely triggered by radiation from a nearby O star.

AB - The optically dark globule IC 1396A is revealed using Spitzer Space Telescope images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, and 24 mum to be infrared-bright and to contain a set of previously unknown protostars. The mid-infrared colors of the 24 mum detected sources indicate several very young (Class I or 0) protostars and a dozen Class II stars. Three of the new sources (IC 1396A:gamma, 1396A:delta, and 1396A:epsilon) emit over 90% of their bolometric luminosities at wavelengths greater than 3 mum, and they are located within similar to0.02 pc of the ionization front at the edge of the globule. Many of the sources have spectra that are still rising at 24 mum. The two previously known young stars LkHalpha 349a and 349c are both detected, with component c harboring a massive disk and component a being bare. On the order of 5% of the mass of material in the globule is presently in the form of protostars in the 10(5)-10(6) yr age range. This high star formation rate was likely triggered by radiation from a nearby O star.

KW - ISM : globules ISM : individual (IC 1396A) infrared : ISM MAIN-SEQUENCE EVOLUTION COMETARY GLOBULES MOLECULAR CLOUDS IC 1396 IC-1396 STARS

U2 - 10.1086/422193

DO - 10.1086/422193

M3 - Article

VL - 154

SP - 385

EP - 390

JO - Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series

JF - Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series

SN - 0067-0049

IS - 1

ER -

Reach WT, Rho J, Young E, Fajardo-Acosta S, Muzerolle J, Sicilia-Aguilar A et al. Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula. Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series. 2004 Sep;154(1):385-390. https://doi.org/10.1086/422193