Specific inactivation and nuclear anchoring of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by the inducible dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP5

Margret Mandl, David N. Slack, Stephen M. Keyse

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    Abstract

    The mechanisms which determine the nuclear accumulation and inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) or ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DUSP5, an inducible nuclear phosphatase, interacts specifically with ERK2 via a kinase interaction motif (KIM) within its amino-terminal noncatalytic domain. This binding determines the substrate specificity of DUSP5 in vivo, as it inactivates ERK2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, we identify within this same domain of DUSP5 a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) which functions independently of the KIM. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of DUSP5 causes both nuclear translocation and sequestration of inactive ERK2. Nuclear anchoring is ERK2 specific and requires both interactions between the DUSP5 KIM and the common docking site of ERK2 and a functional NLS within DUSP5. Finally, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of DUSP5 also tethers ERK2 within the nucleus. Furthermore, this nuclear ERK2 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase kinase in response to growth factors and also activates transcription factor Elk-1. We conclude that DUSP5 is an inducible nuclear ERK-specific MAP kinase phosphatase that functions as both an inactivator of and a nuclear anchor for ERK2 in mammalian cells. In addition, our data indicate that the cytoplasm may not be an exclusive site of MAP kinase activation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1830-1845
    Number of pages16
    JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
    Volume25
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Fingerprint

    Dual-Specificity Phosphatases
    Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
    Nuclear Localization Signals
    Phosphotransferases
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
    ets-Domain Protein Elk-1
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
    p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
    Substrate Specificity
    Green Fluorescent Proteins
    Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
    Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
    Cytoplasm

    Cite this

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    title = "Specific inactivation and nuclear anchoring of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by the inducible dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP5",
    abstract = "The mechanisms which determine the nuclear accumulation and inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) or ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DUSP5, an inducible nuclear phosphatase, interacts specifically with ERK2 via a kinase interaction motif (KIM) within its amino-terminal noncatalytic domain. This binding determines the substrate specificity of DUSP5 in vivo, as it inactivates ERK2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, we identify within this same domain of DUSP5 a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) which functions independently of the KIM. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of DUSP5 causes both nuclear translocation and sequestration of inactive ERK2. Nuclear anchoring is ERK2 specific and requires both interactions between the DUSP5 KIM and the common docking site of ERK2 and a functional NLS within DUSP5. Finally, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of DUSP5 also tethers ERK2 within the nucleus. Furthermore, this nuclear ERK2 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase kinase in response to growth factors and also activates transcription factor Elk-1. We conclude that DUSP5 is an inducible nuclear ERK-specific MAP kinase phosphatase that functions as both an inactivator of and a nuclear anchor for ERK2 in mammalian cells. In addition, our data indicate that the cytoplasm may not be an exclusive site of MAP kinase activation.",
    author = "Margret Mandl and Slack, {David N.} and Keyse, {Stephen M.}",
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    T1 - Specific inactivation and nuclear anchoring of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by the inducible dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP5

    AU - Mandl, Margret

    AU - Slack, David N.

    AU - Keyse, Stephen M.

    N1 - dc.publisher: American Society for Microbiology

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    N2 - The mechanisms which determine the nuclear accumulation and inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) or ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DUSP5, an inducible nuclear phosphatase, interacts specifically with ERK2 via a kinase interaction motif (KIM) within its amino-terminal noncatalytic domain. This binding determines the substrate specificity of DUSP5 in vivo, as it inactivates ERK2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, we identify within this same domain of DUSP5 a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) which functions independently of the KIM. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of DUSP5 causes both nuclear translocation and sequestration of inactive ERK2. Nuclear anchoring is ERK2 specific and requires both interactions between the DUSP5 KIM and the common docking site of ERK2 and a functional NLS within DUSP5. Finally, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of DUSP5 also tethers ERK2 within the nucleus. Furthermore, this nuclear ERK2 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase kinase in response to growth factors and also activates transcription factor Elk-1. We conclude that DUSP5 is an inducible nuclear ERK-specific MAP kinase phosphatase that functions as both an inactivator of and a nuclear anchor for ERK2 in mammalian cells. In addition, our data indicate that the cytoplasm may not be an exclusive site of MAP kinase activation.

    AB - The mechanisms which determine the nuclear accumulation and inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) or ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DUSP5, an inducible nuclear phosphatase, interacts specifically with ERK2 via a kinase interaction motif (KIM) within its amino-terminal noncatalytic domain. This binding determines the substrate specificity of DUSP5 in vivo, as it inactivates ERK2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, we identify within this same domain of DUSP5 a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) which functions independently of the KIM. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of DUSP5 causes both nuclear translocation and sequestration of inactive ERK2. Nuclear anchoring is ERK2 specific and requires both interactions between the DUSP5 KIM and the common docking site of ERK2 and a functional NLS within DUSP5. Finally, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of DUSP5 also tethers ERK2 within the nucleus. Furthermore, this nuclear ERK2 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase kinase in response to growth factors and also activates transcription factor Elk-1. We conclude that DUSP5 is an inducible nuclear ERK-specific MAP kinase phosphatase that functions as both an inactivator of and a nuclear anchor for ERK2 in mammalian cells. In addition, our data indicate that the cytoplasm may not be an exclusive site of MAP kinase activation.

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