Training pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation

A randomised controlled trial in Scotland

Hazel K. Sinclair, Christine M. Bond, A. Scott Lennox, Jonathan Silcock, Arthur J. Winfield, Peter T. Donnan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate a training workshop for community pharmacy personnel to improve their counselling in smoking cessation based on the stage-of-change model.

Design: A randomised controlled trial of community pharmacies and pharmacy customers.

Setting: All 76 non-city community pharmacies registered in Grampian, Scotland, were invited to participate. Sixty-two pharmacies (82%) were recruited.

Subjects: All the intervention pharmacy personnel were invited to attend the training; 40 pharmacists and 54 assistants attended. A total of 492 customers who smoked (224 intervention, 268 controls) were recruited during the 12-month recruitment period (overall recruitment rate 63%).

Main outcome measures: The perceptions of customers and pharmacy personnel of the pharmacy support and self-reported smoking cessation rates for the two groups of customers at one, four, and nine months.

Results: The intervention customer respondents were significantly more likely to have discussed stopping smoking with pharmacy personnel, 85% (113) compared with 62% (99) of the controls (p<0.001). The former also rated their discussion more highly; 34% (45) of the intervention customers compared with 16% (25) of the controls rated it as "very useful" (p = 0.048). Assuming non-responders had lapsed, one-month point prevalence of abstinence was claimed by 30% of intervention customers and 24% of controls (p = 0.12); four months' continuous abstinence was claimed by 16% of intervention customers and 11% of controls (p = 0.094); and nine months' continuous abstinence was claimed by 12% of intervention customers and 7% of controls (p = 0.089). These trends in outcome were not affected by potential confounders (sex, age, socioeconomic status, nicotine dependence, and type of nicotine replacement product used) or adjustment for clustering.

Conclusions: The intervention was associated with increased and more highly rated counselling, and a trend toward higher smoking cessation rates, indicating that community pharmacy personnel have the potential to make a significant contribution to national smoking cessation targets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-261
Number of pages9
JournalTobacco Control
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1998

Fingerprint

Pharmacies
pharmacist
Scotland
Smoking Cessation
Pharmacists
assistant
smoking
Randomized Controlled Trials
customer
personnel
Counseling
Tobacco Use Cessation Products
Tobacco Use Disorder
Social Class
nicotine
community
Cluster Analysis
counseling
Smoking
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Keywords

  • Community pharmacy
  • Health education
  • Smoking cessation

Cite this

Sinclair, Hazel K. ; Bond, Christine M. ; Lennox, A. Scott ; Silcock, Jonathan ; Winfield, Arthur J. ; Donnan, Peter T. / Training pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation : A randomised controlled trial in Scotland. In: Tobacco Control. 1998 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 253-261.
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abstract = "Objective: To evaluate a training workshop for community pharmacy personnel to improve their counselling in smoking cessation based on the stage-of-change model.Design: A randomised controlled trial of community pharmacies and pharmacy customers.Setting: All 76 non-city community pharmacies registered in Grampian, Scotland, were invited to participate. Sixty-two pharmacies (82{\%}) were recruited.Subjects: All the intervention pharmacy personnel were invited to attend the training; 40 pharmacists and 54 assistants attended. A total of 492 customers who smoked (224 intervention, 268 controls) were recruited during the 12-month recruitment period (overall recruitment rate 63{\%}).Main outcome measures: The perceptions of customers and pharmacy personnel of the pharmacy support and self-reported smoking cessation rates for the two groups of customers at one, four, and nine months.Results: The intervention customer respondents were significantly more likely to have discussed stopping smoking with pharmacy personnel, 85{\%} (113) compared with 62{\%} (99) of the controls (p<0.001). The former also rated their discussion more highly; 34{\%} (45) of the intervention customers compared with 16{\%} (25) of the controls rated it as {"}very useful{"} (p = 0.048). Assuming non-responders had lapsed, one-month point prevalence of abstinence was claimed by 30{\%} of intervention customers and 24{\%} of controls (p = 0.12); four months' continuous abstinence was claimed by 16{\%} of intervention customers and 11{\%} of controls (p = 0.094); and nine months' continuous abstinence was claimed by 12{\%} of intervention customers and 7{\%} of controls (p = 0.089). These trends in outcome were not affected by potential confounders (sex, age, socioeconomic status, nicotine dependence, and type of nicotine replacement product used) or adjustment for clustering.Conclusions: The intervention was associated with increased and more highly rated counselling, and a trend toward higher smoking cessation rates, indicating that community pharmacy personnel have the potential to make a significant contribution to national smoking cessation targets.",
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Training pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation : A randomised controlled trial in Scotland. / Sinclair, Hazel K.; Bond, Christine M.; Lennox, A. Scott; Silcock, Jonathan; Winfield, Arthur J.; Donnan, Peter T.

In: Tobacco Control, Vol. 7, No. 3, 09.1998, p. 253-261.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Training pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation

T2 - A randomised controlled trial in Scotland

AU - Sinclair, Hazel K.

AU - Bond, Christine M.

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AU - Silcock, Jonathan

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